Excel (Windows)

Overview

Microsoft Excel is the industry-leading spreadsheet software and the go-to tool for discovering and transforming structured data. Business analysts across all industries leverage this product daily for data analysis, dashboard creation, visualization, and many other functions that support an entire portfolio of use cases.

Advanced Excel users typically use Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) - the programming language for Excel and all other Microsoft programs - to build macros that optimize their workflows. Macros allow users to automate frequently used tasks or processes. For example, a user could build a macro that performs data transformation techniques and table formatting functions, or they could build a more complex macro that makes RESTful API calls relevant for their workflow.

Since Modzy makes AI models available with a single API call, integrating AI into an Excel spreadsheet is as easy as building simple macro that makes a REST call to a Modzy model. This page will walk through an integration that leverages a Home Credit Default Risk model.

The VBA modules are accessible directly here.

Integration in Action

The below giphy demonstrates this full integration in action. Following the integration scripts on our Github page will allow you to produce the raw predictions, which you can use in addition to the raw data to create any plots or charts you prefer. This example plots a histogram of all output prediction scores.

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Figure 1. Integration in Action

Excel Setup

Begin by opening this sample Excel worksheet, and save it as a macro-enabled workbook.

🚧

Macro requirements

Before importing the Modzy API class module and macro modules, you must first prepare your Excel environment.

Enable the developer tab

Create a new sheet called "ML Predictions".

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Figure 2. Create "ML Predictions" sheet

Next, navigate to the File tab, and go to Options --> Customize Ribbon. Under the Customize Ribbon and Main Tabs, select the Developer check box.

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Figure 3. Developer tab enablement

Configure VBA references

Open the VBA editor by selecting the Developer tab and clicking the Visual Basic icon.

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Figure 4. Visual Basic tab

In the VBA editor, enable the Microsoft Scripting Runtime reference. Open the Tools --> References window, and check the Microsoft Scripting Runtime box.

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Figure 5. Microsoft Scripting Runtime reference

VBA Scripts and Macro Setup

Next, add Modzy API class module, JSON Converter module, and Modzy model runner module to your VBA project.

VERSION 1.0 CLASS
BEGIN
  MultiUse = -1  'True
END
Attribute VB_Name = "API_Client"
Attribute VB_GlobalNameSpace = False
Attribute VB_Creatable = False
Attribute VB_PredeclaredId = False
Attribute VB_Exposed = False
Public mURL As String
Public mAPI_key As String
Public mJobRoute As String
Public mResultRoute As String

Public Sub Initialize(url As String, key As String)
    Me.mJobRoute = "api/jobs"
    Me.mResultRoute = "api/results"
    Me.mURL = url
    Me.mAPI_key = key
End Sub

Public Function call_api_home_credit_model(data As String, resultsSheet As String) As Boolean
    ' setup the destination and response URLs
    Dim DestURL As String
    DestURL = Me.mURL & Me.mJobRoute
    Dim ResURL As String
    ResURL = Me.mURL & Me.mResultRoute
    
    ' create json body of nested dictionaries
    ' inner most dict first
    Dim data_string As Dictionary
    Set data_string = New Dictionary
    data_string.Add "input", data
    
    ' source name (excel-data)
    Dim source_name As Dictionary
    Set source_name = New Dictionary
    source_name.Add "excel-data", data_string
    
    ' entire input contents
    Dim input_contents As Dictionary
    Set input_contents = New Dictionary
    input_contents.Add "type", "text"
    input_contents.Add "sources", source_name
    
    
    ' model contents
    Dim model_contents As Dictionary
    Set model_contents = New Dictionary
    model_contents.Add "identifier", "yik4a4i2vv"
    model_contents.Add "version", "1.0.1"
    
    ' combin model and input into a single json
    Dim final_dict As Dictionary
    Set final_dict = New Dictionary
    final_dict.Add "model", model_contents
    final_dict.Add "input", input_contents

    body = JsonConverter.ConvertToJson(ByVal final_dict)
    
    'submit the request
    Set MyRequest = CreateObject("WinHttp.WinHttpRequest.5.1")
    MyRequest.Open "POST", DestURL, False
    MyRequest.setRequestHeader "Content-type", "application/json"
    MyRequest.setRequestHeader "Accept", "application/json"
    MyRequest.setRequestHeader "Authorization", "ApiKey " & Me.mAPI_key
    
    MyRequest.Send body
    
    'get the current job  ID
    Dim jobResponseJSON As Object
    Set jobResponseJSON = JsonConverter.ParseJson(MyRequest.ResponseText)
    
    jobID = jobResponseJSON("jobIdentifier")

    ' get the status of the Job
    Dim statusURL As String
    statusURL = DestURL & "/" & jobID
    
    ' wait until job is finished
     Do While check_status(statusURL)
        waitTill = Now() + TimeValue("00:00:05")

        While Now() < waitTill
            DoEvents
        Wend
    Loop
    
    'get result
    result_raw = get_result(ResURL & "/" & jobID)
    
    Dim resultSheet As Worksheet
    Set resultSheet = Sheets(resultsSheet)
    
    Dim resultResponseJSON As Object
    Set resultResponseJSON = JsonConverter.ParseJson(UTF8_Decode(result_raw))
    
    Dim key, pred
    Dim c As Range
    Dim rowCounter As Integer
    rowCounter = 1

    Set c = resultSheet.Range("A7")

    'loop over timesheets
    For Each key In resultResponseJSON("results")("excel-data")("results.json")("data")("result")("predictions")
        c.Cells(rowCounter, 1).Value = key("row")
        c.Cells(rowCounter, 2).Value = key("pred")
        rowCounter = rowCounter + 1
    Next key
    
End Function

Public Function UTF8_Decode(ByVal sStr As String)
    Dim l As Long, sUTF8 As String, iChar As Integer, iChar2 As Integer
    For l = 1 To Len(sStr)
        iChar = Asc(Mid(sStr, l, 1))
        If iChar > 127 Then
            If Not iChar And 32 Then ' 2 chars
            iChar2 = Asc(Mid(sStr, l + 1, 1))
            sUTF8 = sUTF8 & ChrW$(((31 And iChar) * 64 + (63 And iChar2)))
            l = l + 1
        Else
            Dim iChar3 As Integer
            iChar2 = Asc(Mid(sStr, l + 1, 1))
            iChar3 = Asc(Mid(sStr, l + 2, 1))
            sUTF8 = sUTF8 & ChrW$(((iChar And 15) * 16 * 256) + ((iChar2 And 63) * 64) + (iChar3 And 63))
            l = l + 2
        End If
            Else
            sUTF8 = sUTF8 & Chr$(iChar)
        End If
    Next l
    UTF8_Decode = sUTF8
End Function


Public Function check_status(url As String) As Boolean

    Set MyStatus = CreateObject("WinHttp.WinHttpRequest.5.1")
    MyStatus.Open "GET", url, False
    MyStatus.setRequestHeader "Content-type", "application/json"
    MyStatus.setRequestHeader "Accept", "application/json"
    MyStatus.setRequestHeader "Authorization", "ApiKey " & Me.mAPI_key
    
    MyStatus.Send
    response2 = MyStatus.ResponseText
    
    statusLocation = InStr(response2, "status") + 9
    statusReport = Mid(response2, statusLocation, 9)
    'MsgBox statusReport
    
    rValue = True
    
    If StrComp(statusReport, "COMPLETED") = 0 Then
        rValue = False
    End If
    
    check_status = rValue
    
End Function

Public Function get_result(url As String) As String

    Set MyResult = CreateObject("WinHttp.WinHttpRequest.5.1")
    MyResult.Open "GET", url, False
    MyResult.setRequestHeader "Content-type", "application/json"
    MyResult.setRequestHeader "Accept", "application/json"
    MyResult.setRequestHeader "Authorization", "ApiKey " & Me.mAPI_key
    
    MyResult.Send
    response = MyResult.ResponseText
    
    
    get_result = response
    
End Function

Public Function list_models() As String

    Dim Destination As String
    Destination = "http://" & Me.mURL & "api/models"
    
    Set MyRequest = CreateObject("WinHttp.WinHttpRequest.5.1")
    MyRequest.Open "GET", Destination, False
    MyRequest.setRequestHeader "Content-type", "application/json"
    MyRequest.setRequestHeader "Accept", "application/json"
    MyRequest.setRequestHeader "Authorization", "ApiKey " & Me.mAPI_key
    
    
    MyRequest.Send
    sHTML = MyRequest.ResponseText
    
    'And we get this response
    MsgBox sHTML
    
    ActiveDocument.Content.InsertAfter Text:=sHTML

End Function


Public Function test() As String

    Dim Destination As String
    Destination = "https://demo.modzy.engineering/api/jobs/"
    
    Set MyRequest = CreateObject("WinHttp.WinHttpRequest.5.1")
    MyRequest.Open "GET", Destination, False
    MyRequest.setRequestHeader "Content-type", "application/json"
    MyRequest.setRequestHeader "Accept", "application/json"
    MyRequest.setRequestHeader "Authorization", "ApiKey " & Me.mAPI_key
    
    
    MyRequest.Send
    sHTML = MyRequest.ResponseText
    
    'And we get this response
    MsgBox sHTML

End Function

Private Sub Class_Initialize()

End Sub
Attribute VB_Name = "JsonConverter"
''
' VBA-JSON v2.3.1
' (c) Tim Hall - https://github.com/VBA-tools/VBA-JSON
'
' JSON Converter for VBA
'
' Errors:
' 10001 - JSON parse error
'
' @class JsonConverter
' @author [email protected]
' @license MIT (http://www.opensource.org/licenses/mit-license.php)
'' ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ '
'
' Based originally on vba-json (with extensive changes)
' BSD license included below
'
' JSONLib, http://code.google.com/p/vba-json/
'
' Copyright (c) 2013, Ryo Yokoyama
' All rights reserved.
'
' Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
' modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:
'     * Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
'       notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
'     * Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
'       notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
'       documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
'     * Neither the name of the <organization> nor the
'       names of its contributors may be used to endorse or promote products
'       derived from this software without specific prior written permission.
'
' THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND
' ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED
' WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE
' DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL <COPYRIGHT HOLDER> BE LIABLE FOR ANY
' DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES
' (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES;
' LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND
' ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT
' (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS
' SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
' ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ '
Option Explicit

' === VBA-UTC Headers
#If Mac Then

#If VBA7 Then

' 64-bit Mac (2016)
Private Declare PtrSafe Function utc_popen Lib "/usr/lib/libc.dylib" Alias "popen" _
    (ByVal utc_Command As String, ByVal utc_Mode As String) As LongPtr
Private Declare PtrSafe Function utc_pclose Lib "/usr/lib/libc.dylib" Alias "pclose" _
    (ByVal utc_File As LongPtr) As LongPtr
Private Declare PtrSafe Function utc_fread Lib "/usr/lib/libc.dylib" Alias "fread" _
    (ByVal utc_Buffer As String, ByVal utc_Size As LongPtr, ByVal utc_Number As LongPtr, ByVal utc_File As LongPtr) As LongPtr
Private Declare PtrSafe Function utc_feof Lib "/usr/lib/libc.dylib" Alias "feof" _
    (ByVal utc_File As LongPtr) As LongPtr

#Else

' 32-bit Mac
Private Declare Function utc_popen Lib "libc.dylib" Alias "popen" _
    (ByVal utc_Command As String, ByVal utc_Mode As String) As Long
Private Declare Function utc_pclose Lib "libc.dylib" Alias "pclose" _
    (ByVal utc_File As Long) As Long
Private Declare Function utc_fread Lib "libc.dylib" Alias "fread" _
    (ByVal utc_Buffer As String, ByVal utc_Size As Long, ByVal utc_Number As Long, ByVal utc_File As Long) As Long
Private Declare Function utc_feof Lib "libc.dylib" Alias "feof" _
    (ByVal utc_File As Long) As Long

#End If

#ElseIf VBA7 Then

' http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/ms724421.aspx
' http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/ms724949.aspx
' http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/ms725485.aspx
Private Declare PtrSafe Function utc_GetTimeZoneInformation Lib "kernel32" Alias "GetTimeZoneInformation" _
    (utc_lpTimeZoneInformation As utc_TIME_ZONE_INFORMATION) As Long
Private Declare PtrSafe Function utc_SystemTimeToTzSpecificLocalTime Lib "kernel32" Alias "SystemTimeToTzSpecificLocalTime" _
    (utc_lpTimeZoneInformation As utc_TIME_ZONE_INFORMATION, utc_lpUniversalTime As utc_SYSTEMTIME, utc_lpLocalTime As utc_SYSTEMTIME) As Long
Private Declare PtrSafe Function utc_TzSpecificLocalTimeToSystemTime Lib "kernel32" Alias "TzSpecificLocalTimeToSystemTime" _
    (utc_lpTimeZoneInformation As utc_TIME_ZONE_INFORMATION, utc_lpLocalTime As utc_SYSTEMTIME, utc_lpUniversalTime As utc_SYSTEMTIME) As Long

#Else

Private Declare Function utc_GetTimeZoneInformation Lib "kernel32" Alias "GetTimeZoneInformation" _
    (utc_lpTimeZoneInformation As utc_TIME_ZONE_INFORMATION) As Long
Private Declare Function utc_SystemTimeToTzSpecificLocalTime Lib "kernel32" Alias "SystemTimeToTzSpecificLocalTime" _
    (utc_lpTimeZoneInformation As utc_TIME_ZONE_INFORMATION, utc_lpUniversalTime As utc_SYSTEMTIME, utc_lpLocalTime As utc_SYSTEMTIME) As Long
Private Declare Function utc_TzSpecificLocalTimeToSystemTime Lib "kernel32" Alias "TzSpecificLocalTimeToSystemTime" _
    (utc_lpTimeZoneInformation As utc_TIME_ZONE_INFORMATION, utc_lpLocalTime As utc_SYSTEMTIME, utc_lpUniversalTime As utc_SYSTEMTIME) As Long

#End If

#If Mac Then

#If VBA7 Then
Private Type utc_ShellResult
    utc_Output As String
    utc_ExitCode As LongPtr
End Type

#Else

Private Type utc_ShellResult
    utc_Output As String
    utc_ExitCode As Long
End Type

#End If

#Else

Private Type utc_SYSTEMTIME
    utc_wYear As Integer
    utc_wMonth As Integer
    utc_wDayOfWeek As Integer
    utc_wDay As Integer
    utc_wHour As Integer
    utc_wMinute As Integer
    utc_wSecond As Integer
    utc_wMilliseconds As Integer
End Type

Private Type utc_TIME_ZONE_INFORMATION
    utc_Bias As Long
    utc_StandardName(0 To 31) As Integer
    utc_StandardDate As utc_SYSTEMTIME
    utc_StandardBias As Long
    utc_DaylightName(0 To 31) As Integer
    utc_DaylightDate As utc_SYSTEMTIME
    utc_DaylightBias As Long
End Type

#End If
' === End VBA-UTC

Private Type json_Options
    ' VBA only stores 15 significant digits, so any numbers larger than that are truncated
    ' This can lead to issues when BIGINT's are used (e.g. for Ids or Credit Cards), as they will be invalid above 15 digits
    ' See: http://support.microsoft.com/kb/269370
    '
    ' By default, VBA-JSON will use String for numbers longer than 15 characters that contain only digits
    ' to override set `JsonConverter.JsonOptions.UseDoubleForLargeNumbers = True`
    UseDoubleForLargeNumbers As Boolean

    ' The JSON standard requires object keys to be quoted (" or '), use this option to allow unquoted keys
    AllowUnquotedKeys As Boolean

    ' The solidus (/) is not required to be escaped, use this option to escape them as \/ in ConvertToJson
    EscapeSolidus As Boolean
End Type
Public JsonOptions As json_Options

' ============================================= '
' Public Methods
' ============================================= '

''
' Convert JSON string to object (Dictionary/Collection)
'
' @method ParseJson
' @param {String} json_String
' @return {Object} (Dictionary or Collection)
' @throws 10001 - JSON parse error
''
Public Function ParseJson(ByVal JsonString As String) As Object
    Dim json_Index As Long
    json_Index = 1

    ' Remove vbCr, vbLf, and vbTab from json_String
    JsonString = VBA.Replace(VBA.Replace(VBA.Replace(JsonString, VBA.vbCr, ""), VBA.vbLf, ""), VBA.vbTab, "")

    json_SkipSpaces JsonString, json_Index
    Select Case VBA.Mid$(JsonString, json_Index, 1)
    Case "{"
        Set ParseJson = json_ParseObject(JsonString, json_Index)
    Case "["
        Set ParseJson = json_ParseArray(JsonString, json_Index)
    Case Else
        ' Error: Invalid JSON string
        Err.Raise 10001, "JSONConverter", json_ParseErrorMessage(JsonString, json_Index, "Expecting '{' or '['")
    End Select
End Function

''
' Convert object (Dictionary/Collection/Array) to JSON
'
' @method ConvertToJson
' @param {Variant} JsonValue (Dictionary, Collection, or Array)
' @param {Integer|String} Whitespace "Pretty" print json with given number of spaces per indentation (Integer) or given string
' @return {String}
''
Public Function ConvertToJson(ByVal JsonValue As Variant, Optional ByVal Whitespace As Variant, Optional ByVal json_CurrentIndentation As Long = 0) As String
    Dim json_Buffer As String
    Dim json_BufferPosition As Long
    Dim json_BufferLength As Long
    Dim json_Index As Long
    Dim json_LBound As Long
    Dim json_UBound As Long
    Dim json_IsFirstItem As Boolean
    Dim json_Index2D As Long
    Dim json_LBound2D As Long
    Dim json_UBound2D As Long
    Dim json_IsFirstItem2D As Boolean
    Dim json_Key As Variant
    Dim json_Value As Variant
    Dim json_DateStr As String
    Dim json_Converted As String
    Dim json_SkipItem As Boolean
    Dim json_PrettyPrint As Boolean
    Dim json_Indentation As String
    Dim json_InnerIndentation As String

    json_LBound = -1
    json_UBound = -1
    json_IsFirstItem = True
    json_LBound2D = -1
    json_UBound2D = -1
    json_IsFirstItem2D = True
    json_PrettyPrint = Not IsMissing(Whitespace)

    Select Case VBA.VarType(JsonValue)
    Case VBA.vbNull
        ConvertToJson = "null"
    Case VBA.vbDate
        ' Date
        json_DateStr = ConvertToIso(VBA.CDate(JsonValue))

        ConvertToJson = """" & json_DateStr & """"
    Case VBA.vbString
        ' String (or large number encoded as string)
        If Not JsonOptions.UseDoubleForLargeNumbers And json_StringIsLargeNumber(JsonValue) Then
            ConvertToJson = JsonValue
        Else
            ConvertToJson = """" & json_Encode(JsonValue) & """"
        End If
    Case VBA.vbBoolean
        If JsonValue Then
            ConvertToJson = "true"
        Else
            ConvertToJson = "false"
        End If
    Case VBA.vbArray To VBA.vbArray + VBA.vbByte
        If json_PrettyPrint Then
            If VBA.VarType(Whitespace) = VBA.vbString Then
                json_Indentation = VBA.String$(json_CurrentIndentation + 1, Whitespace)
                json_InnerIndentation = VBA.String$(json_CurrentIndentation + 2, Whitespace)
            Else
                json_Indentation = VBA.Space$((json_CurrentIndentation + 1) * Whitespace)
                json_InnerIndentation = VBA.Space$((json_CurrentIndentation + 2) * Whitespace)
            End If
        End If

        ' Array
        json_BufferAppend json_Buffer, "[", json_BufferPosition, json_BufferLength

        On Error Resume Next

        json_LBound = LBound(JsonValue, 1)
        json_UBound = UBound(JsonValue, 1)
        json_LBound2D = LBound(JsonValue, 2)
        json_UBound2D = UBound(JsonValue, 2)

        If json_LBound >= 0 And json_UBound >= 0 Then
            For json_Index = json_LBound To json_UBound
                If json_IsFirstItem Then
                    json_IsFirstItem = False
                Else
                    ' Append comma to previous line
                    json_BufferAppend json_Buffer, ",", json_BufferPosition, json_BufferLength
                End If

                If json_LBound2D >= 0 And json_UBound2D >= 0 Then
                    ' 2D Array
                    If json_PrettyPrint Then
                        json_BufferAppend json_Buffer, vbNewLine, json_BufferPosition, json_BufferLength
                    End If
                    json_BufferAppend json_Buffer, json_Indentation & "[", json_BufferPosition, json_BufferLength

                    For json_Index2D = json_LBound2D To json_UBound2D
                        If json_IsFirstItem2D Then
                            json_IsFirstItem2D = False
                        Else
                            json_BufferAppend json_Buffer, ",", json_BufferPosition, json_BufferLength
                        End If

                        json_Converted = ConvertToJson(JsonValue(json_Index, json_Index2D), Whitespace, json_CurrentIndentation + 2)

                        ' For Arrays/Collections, undefined (Empty/Nothing) is treated as null
                        If json_Converted = "" Then
                            ' (nest to only check if converted = "")
                            If json_IsUndefined(JsonValue(json_Index, json_Index2D)) Then
                                json_Converted = "null"
                            End If
                        End If

                        If json_PrettyPrint Then
                            json_Converted = vbNewLine & json_InnerIndentation & json_Converted
                        End If

                        json_BufferAppend json_Buffer, json_Converted, json_BufferPosition, json_BufferLength
                    Next json_Index2D

                    If json_PrettyPrint Then
                        json_BufferAppend json_Buffer, vbNewLine, json_BufferPosition, json_BufferLength
                    End If

                    json_BufferAppend json_Buffer, json_Indentation & "]", json_BufferPosition, json_BufferLength
                    json_IsFirstItem2D = True
                Else
                    ' 1D Array
                    json_Converted = ConvertToJson(JsonValue(json_Index), Whitespace, json_CurrentIndentation + 1)

                    ' For Arrays/Collections, undefined (Empty/Nothing) is treated as null
                    If json_Converted = "" Then
                        ' (nest to only check if converted = "")
                        If json_IsUndefined(JsonValue(json_Index)) Then
                            json_Converted = "null"
                        End If
                    End If

                    If json_PrettyPrint Then
                        json_Converted = vbNewLine & json_Indentation & json_Converted
                    End If

                    json_BufferAppend json_Buffer, json_Converted, json_BufferPosition, json_BufferLength
                End If
            Next json_Index
        End If

        On Error GoTo 0

        If json_PrettyPrint Then
            json_BufferAppend json_Buffer, vbNewLine, json_BufferPosition, json_BufferLength

            If VBA.VarType(Whitespace) = VBA.vbString Then
                json_Indentation = VBA.String$(json_CurrentIndentation, Whitespace)
            Else
                json_Indentation = VBA.Space$(json_CurrentIndentation * Whitespace)
            End If
        End If

        json_BufferAppend json_Buffer, json_Indentation & "]", json_BufferPosition, json_BufferLength

        ConvertToJson = json_BufferToString(json_Buffer, json_BufferPosition)

    ' Dictionary or Collection
    Case VBA.vbObject
        If json_PrettyPrint Then
            If VBA.VarType(Whitespace) = VBA.vbString Then
                json_Indentation = VBA.String$(json_CurrentIndentation + 1, Whitespace)
            Else
                json_Indentation = VBA.Space$((json_CurrentIndentation + 1) * Whitespace)
            End If
        End If

        ' Dictionary
        If VBA.TypeName(JsonValue) = "Dictionary" Then
            json_BufferAppend json_Buffer, "{", json_BufferPosition, json_BufferLength
            For Each json_Key In JsonValue.Keys
                ' For Objects, undefined (Empty/Nothing) is not added to object
                json_Converted = ConvertToJson(JsonValue(json_Key), Whitespace, json_CurrentIndentation + 1)
                If json_Converted = "" Then
                    json_SkipItem = json_IsUndefined(JsonValue(json_Key))
                Else
                    json_SkipItem = False
                End If

                If Not json_SkipItem Then
                    If json_IsFirstItem Then
                        json_IsFirstItem = False
                    Else
                        json_BufferAppend json_Buffer, ",", json_BufferPosition, json_BufferLength
                    End If

                    If json_PrettyPrint Then
                        json_Converted = vbNewLine & json_Indentation & """" & json_Key & """: " & json_Converted
                    Else
                        json_Converted = """" & json_Key & """:" & json_Converted
                    End If

                    json_BufferAppend json_Buffer, json_Converted, json_BufferPosition, json_BufferLength
                End If
            Next json_Key

            If json_PrettyPrint Then
                json_BufferAppend json_Buffer, vbNewLine, json_BufferPosition, json_BufferLength

                If VBA.VarType(Whitespace) = VBA.vbString Then
                    json_Indentation = VBA.String$(json_CurrentIndentation, Whitespace)
                Else
                    json_Indentation = VBA.Space$(json_CurrentIndentation * Whitespace)
                End If
            End If

            json_BufferAppend json_Buffer, json_Indentation & "}", json_BufferPosition, json_BufferLength

        ' Collection
        ElseIf VBA.TypeName(JsonValue) = "Collection" Then
            json_BufferAppend json_Buffer, "[", json_BufferPosition, json_BufferLength
            For Each json_Value In JsonValue
                If json_IsFirstItem Then
                    json_IsFirstItem = False
                Else
                    json_BufferAppend json_Buffer, ",", json_BufferPosition, json_BufferLength
                End If

                json_Converted = ConvertToJson(json_Value, Whitespace, json_CurrentIndentation + 1)

                ' For Arrays/Collections, undefined (Empty/Nothing) is treated as null
                If json_Converted = "" Then
                    ' (nest to only check if converted = "")
                    If json_IsUndefined(json_Value) Then
                        json_Converted = "null"
                    End If
                End If

                If json_PrettyPrint Then
                    json_Converted = vbNewLine & json_Indentation & json_Converted
                End If

                json_BufferAppend json_Buffer, json_Converted, json_BufferPosition, json_BufferLength
            Next json_Value

            If json_PrettyPrint Then
                json_BufferAppend json_Buffer, vbNewLine, json_BufferPosition, json_BufferLength

                If VBA.VarType(Whitespace) = VBA.vbString Then
                    json_Indentation = VBA.String$(json_CurrentIndentation, Whitespace)
                Else
                    json_Indentation = VBA.Space$(json_CurrentIndentation * Whitespace)
                End If
            End If

            json_BufferAppend json_Buffer, json_Indentation & "]", json_BufferPosition, json_BufferLength
        End If

        ConvertToJson = json_BufferToString(json_Buffer, json_BufferPosition)
    Case VBA.vbInteger, VBA.vbLong, VBA.vbSingle, VBA.vbDouble, VBA.vbCurrency, VBA.vbDecimal
        ' Number (use decimals for numbers)
        ConvertToJson = VBA.Replace(JsonValue, ",", ".")
    Case Else
        ' vbEmpty, vbError, vbDataObject, vbByte, vbUserDefinedType
        ' Use VBA's built-in to-string
        On Error Resume Next
        ConvertToJson = JsonValue
        On Error GoTo 0
    End Select
End Function

' ============================================= '
' Private Functions
' ============================================= '

Private Function json_ParseObject(json_String As String, ByRef json_Index As Long) As Dictionary
    Dim json_Key As String
    Dim json_NextChar As String

    Set json_ParseObject = New Dictionary
    json_SkipSpaces json_String, json_Index
    If VBA.Mid$(json_String, json_Index, 1) <> "{" Then
        Err.Raise 10001, "JSONConverter", json_ParseErrorMessage(json_String, json_Index, "Expecting '{'")
    Else
        json_Index = json_Index + 1

        Do
            json_SkipSpaces json_String, json_Index
            If VBA.Mid$(json_String, json_Index, 1) = "}" Then
                json_Index = json_Index + 1
                Exit Function
            ElseIf VBA.Mid$(json_String, json_Index, 1) = "," Then
                json_Index = json_Index + 1
                json_SkipSpaces json_String, json_Index
            End If

            json_Key = json_ParseKey(json_String, json_Index)
            json_NextChar = json_Peek(json_String, json_Index)
            If json_NextChar = "[" Or json_NextChar = "{" Then
                Set json_ParseObject.item(json_Key) = json_ParseValue(json_String, json_Index)
            Else
                json_ParseObject.item(json_Key) = json_ParseValue(json_String, json_Index)
            End If
        Loop
    End If
End Function

Private Function json_ParseArray(json_String As String, ByRef json_Index As Long) As Collection
    Set json_ParseArray = New Collection

    json_SkipSpaces json_String, json_Index
    If VBA.Mid$(json_String, json_Index, 1) <> "[" Then
        Err.Raise 10001, "JSONConverter", json_ParseErrorMessage(json_String, json_Index, "Expecting '['")
    Else
        json_Index = json_Index + 1

        Do
            json_SkipSpaces json_String, json_Index
            If VBA.Mid$(json_String, json_Index, 1) = "]" Then
                json_Index = json_Index + 1
                Exit Function
            ElseIf VBA.Mid$(json_String, json_Index, 1) = "," Then
                json_Index = json_Index + 1
                json_SkipSpaces json_String, json_Index
            End If

            json_ParseArray.Add json_ParseValue(json_String, json_Index)
        Loop
    End If
End Function

Private Function json_ParseValue(json_String As String, ByRef json_Index As Long) As Variant
    json_SkipSpaces json_String, json_Index
    Select Case VBA.Mid$(json_String, json_Index, 1)
    Case "{"
        Set json_ParseValue = json_ParseObject(json_String, json_Index)
    Case "["
        Set json_ParseValue = json_ParseArray(json_String, json_Index)
    Case """", "'"
        json_ParseValue = json_ParseString(json_String, json_Index)
    Case Else
        If VBA.Mid$(json_String, json_Index, 4) = "true" Then
            json_ParseValue = True
            json_Index = json_Index + 4
        ElseIf VBA.Mid$(json_String, json_Index, 5) = "false" Then
            json_ParseValue = False
            json_Index = json_Index + 5
        ElseIf VBA.Mid$(json_String, json_Index, 4) = "null" Then
            json_ParseValue = Null
            json_Index = json_Index + 4
        ElseIf VBA.InStr("+-0123456789", VBA.Mid$(json_String, json_Index, 1)) Then
            json_ParseValue = json_ParseNumber(json_String, json_Index)
        Else
            Err.Raise 10001, "JSONConverter", json_ParseErrorMessage(json_String, json_Index, "Expecting 'STRING', 'NUMBER', null, true, false, '{', or '['")
        End If
    End Select
End Function

Private Function json_ParseString(json_String As String, ByRef json_Index As Long) As String
    Dim json_Quote As String
    Dim json_Char As String
    Dim json_Code As String
    Dim json_Buffer As String
    Dim json_BufferPosition As Long
    Dim json_BufferLength As Long

    json_SkipSpaces json_String, json_Index

    ' Store opening quote to look for matching closing quote
    json_Quote = VBA.Mid$(json_String, json_Index, 1)
    json_Index = json_Index + 1

    Do While json_Index > 0 And json_Index <= Len(json_String)
        json_Char = VBA.Mid$(json_String, json_Index, 1)

        Select Case json_Char
        Case "\"
            ' Escaped string, \\, or \/
            json_Index = json_Index + 1
            json_Char = VBA.Mid$(json_String, json_Index, 1)

            Select Case json_Char
            Case """", "\", "/", "'"
                json_BufferAppend json_Buffer, json_Char, json_BufferPosition, json_BufferLength
                json_Index = json_Index + 1
            Case "b"
                json_BufferAppend json_Buffer, vbBack, json_BufferPosition, json_BufferLength
                json_Index = json_Index + 1
            Case "f"
                json_BufferAppend json_Buffer, vbFormFeed, json_BufferPosition, json_BufferLength
                json_Index = json_Index + 1
            Case "n"
                json_BufferAppend json_Buffer, vbCrLf, json_BufferPosition, json_BufferLength
                json_Index = json_Index + 1
            Case "r"
                json_BufferAppend json_Buffer, vbCr, json_BufferPosition, json_BufferLength
                json_Index = json_Index + 1
            Case "t"
                json_BufferAppend json_Buffer, vbTab, json_BufferPosition, json_BufferLength
                json_Index = json_Index + 1
            Case "u"
                ' Unicode character escape (e.g. \u00a9 = Copyright)
                json_Index = json_Index + 1
                json_Code = VBA.Mid$(json_String, json_Index, 4)
                json_BufferAppend json_Buffer, VBA.ChrW(VBA.val("&h" + json_Code)), json_BufferPosition, json_BufferLength
                json_Index = json_Index + 4
            End Select
        Case json_Quote
            json_ParseString = json_BufferToString(json_Buffer, json_BufferPosition)
            json_Index = json_Index + 1
            Exit Function
        Case Else
            json_BufferAppend json_Buffer, json_Char, json_BufferPosition, json_BufferLength
            json_Index = json_Index + 1
        End Select
    Loop
End Function

Private Function json_ParseNumber(json_String As String, ByRef json_Index As Long) As Variant
    Dim json_Char As String
    Dim json_Value As String
    Dim json_IsLargeNumber As Boolean

    json_SkipSpaces json_String, json_Index

    Do While json_Index > 0 And json_Index <= Len(json_String)
        json_Char = VBA.Mid$(json_String, json_Index, 1)

        If VBA.InStr("+-0123456789.eE", json_Char) Then
            ' Unlikely to have massive number, so use simple append rather than buffer here
            json_Value = json_Value & json_Char
            json_Index = json_Index + 1
        Else
            ' Excel only stores 15 significant digits, so any numbers larger than that are truncated
            ' This can lead to issues when BIGINT's are used (e.g. for Ids or Credit Cards), as they will be invalid above 15 digits
            ' See: http://support.microsoft.com/kb/269370
            '
            ' Fix: Parse -> String, Convert -> String longer than 15/16 characters containing only numbers and decimal points -> Number
            ' (decimal doesn't factor into significant digit count, so if present check for 15 digits + decimal = 16)
            json_IsLargeNumber = IIf(InStr(json_Value, "."), Len(json_Value) >= 17, Len(json_Value) >= 16)
            If Not JsonOptions.UseDoubleForLargeNumbers And json_IsLargeNumber Then
                json_ParseNumber = json_Value
            Else
                ' VBA.Val does not use regional settings, so guard for comma is not needed
                json_ParseNumber = VBA.val(json_Value)
            End If
            Exit Function
        End If
    Loop
End Function

Private Function json_ParseKey(json_String As String, ByRef json_Index As Long) As String
    ' Parse key with single or double quotes
    If VBA.Mid$(json_String, json_Index, 1) = """" Or VBA.Mid$(json_String, json_Index, 1) = "'" Then
        json_ParseKey = json_ParseString(json_String, json_Index)
    ElseIf JsonOptions.AllowUnquotedKeys Then
        Dim json_Char As String
        Do While json_Index > 0 And json_Index <= Len(json_String)
            json_Char = VBA.Mid$(json_String, json_Index, 1)
            If (json_Char <> " ") And (json_Char <> ":") Then
                json_ParseKey = json_ParseKey & json_Char
                json_Index = json_Index + 1
            Else
                Exit Do
            End If
        Loop
    Else
        Err.Raise 10001, "JSONConverter", json_ParseErrorMessage(json_String, json_Index, "Expecting '""' or '''")
    End If

    ' Check for colon and skip if present or throw if not present
    json_SkipSpaces json_String, json_Index
    If VBA.Mid$(json_String, json_Index, 1) <> ":" Then
        Err.Raise 10001, "JSONConverter", json_ParseErrorMessage(json_String, json_Index, "Expecting ':'")
    Else
        json_Index = json_Index + 1
    End If
End Function

Private Function json_IsUndefined(ByVal json_Value As Variant) As Boolean
    ' Empty / Nothing -> undefined
    Select Case VBA.VarType(json_Value)
    Case VBA.vbEmpty
        json_IsUndefined = True
    Case VBA.vbObject
        Select Case VBA.TypeName(json_Value)
        Case "Empty", "Nothing"
            json_IsUndefined = True
        End Select
    End Select
End Function

Private Function json_Encode(ByVal json_Text As Variant) As String
    ' Reference: http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc4627.txt
    ' Escape: ", \, /, backspace, form feed, line feed, carriage return, tab
    Dim json_Index As Long
    Dim json_Char As String
    Dim json_AscCode As Long
    Dim json_Buffer As String
    Dim json_BufferPosition As Long
    Dim json_BufferLength As Long

    For json_Index = 1 To VBA.Len(json_Text)
        json_Char = VBA.Mid$(json_Text, json_Index, 1)
        json_AscCode = VBA.AscW(json_Char)

        ' When AscW returns a negative number, it returns the twos complement form of that number.
        ' To convert the twos complement notation into normal binary notation, add 0xFFF to the return result.
        ' https://support.microsoft.com/en-us/kb/272138
        If json_AscCode < 0 Then
            json_AscCode = json_AscCode + 65536
        End If

        ' From spec, ", \, and control characters must be escaped (solidus is optional)

        Select Case json_AscCode
        Case 34
            ' " -> 34 -> \"
            json_Char = "\"""
        Case 92
            ' \ -> 92 -> \\
            json_Char = "\\"
        Case 47
            ' / -> 47 -> \/ (optional)
            If JsonOptions.EscapeSolidus Then
                json_Char = "\/"
            End If
        Case 8
            ' backspace -> 8 -> \b
            json_Char = "\b"
        Case 12
            ' form feed -> 12 -> \f
            json_Char = "\f"
        Case 10
            ' line feed -> 10 -> \n
            json_Char = "\n"
        Case 13
            ' carriage return -> 13 -> \r
            json_Char = "\r"
        Case 9
            ' tab -> 9 -> \t
            json_Char = "\t"
        Case 0 To 31, 127 To 65535
            ' Non-ascii characters -> convert to 4-digit hex
            json_Char = "\u" & VBA.Right$("0000" & VBA.Hex$(json_AscCode), 4)
        End Select

        json_BufferAppend json_Buffer, json_Char, json_BufferPosition, json_BufferLength
    Next json_Index

    json_Encode = json_BufferToString(json_Buffer, json_BufferPosition)
End Function

Private Function json_Peek(json_String As String, ByVal json_Index As Long, Optional json_NumberOfCharacters As Long = 1) As String
    ' "Peek" at the next number of characters without incrementing json_Index (ByVal instead of ByRef)
    json_SkipSpaces json_String, json_Index
    json_Peek = VBA.Mid$(json_String, json_Index, json_NumberOfCharacters)
End Function

Private Sub json_SkipSpaces(json_String As String, ByRef json_Index As Long)
    ' Increment index to skip over spaces
    Do While json_Index > 0 And json_Index <= VBA.Len(json_String) And VBA.Mid$(json_String, json_Index, 1) = " "
        json_Index = json_Index + 1
    Loop
End Sub

Private Function json_StringIsLargeNumber(json_String As Variant) As Boolean
    ' Check if the given string is considered a "large number"
    ' (See json_ParseNumber)

    Dim json_Length As Long
    Dim json_CharIndex As Long
    json_Length = VBA.Len(json_String)

    ' Length with be at least 16 characters and assume will be less than 100 characters
    If json_Length >= 16 And json_Length <= 100 Then
        Dim json_CharCode As String

        json_StringIsLargeNumber = True

        For json_CharIndex = 1 To json_Length
            json_CharCode = VBA.Asc(VBA.Mid$(json_String, json_CharIndex, 1))
            Select Case json_CharCode
            ' Look for .|0-9|E|e
            Case 46, 48 To 57, 69, 101
                ' Continue through characters
            Case Else
                json_StringIsLargeNumber = False
                Exit Function
            End Select
        Next json_CharIndex
    End If
End Function

Private Function json_ParseErrorMessage(json_String As String, ByRef json_Index As Long, ErrorMessage As String)
    ' Provide detailed parse error message, including details of where and what occurred
    '
    ' Example:
    ' Error parsing JSON:
    ' {"abcde":True}
    '          ^
    ' Expecting 'STRING', 'NUMBER', null, true, false, '{', or '['

    Dim json_StartIndex As Long
    Dim json_StopIndex As Long

    ' Include 10 characters before and after error (if possible)
    json_StartIndex = json_Index - 10
    json_StopIndex = json_Index + 10
    If json_StartIndex <= 0 Then
        json_StartIndex = 1
    End If
    If json_StopIndex > VBA.Len(json_String) Then
        json_StopIndex = VBA.Len(json_String)
    End If

    json_ParseErrorMessage = "Error parsing JSON:" & VBA.vbNewLine & _
                             VBA.Mid$(json_String, json_StartIndex, json_StopIndex - json_StartIndex + 1) & VBA.vbNewLine & _
                             VBA.Space$(json_Index - json_StartIndex) & "^" & VBA.vbNewLine & _
                             ErrorMessage
End Function

Private Sub json_BufferAppend(ByRef json_Buffer As String, _
                              ByRef json_Append As Variant, _
                              ByRef json_BufferPosition As Long, _
                              ByRef json_BufferLength As Long)
    ' VBA can be slow to append strings due to allocating a new string for each append
    ' Instead of using the traditional append, allocate a large empty string and then copy string at append position
    '
    ' Example:
    ' Buffer: "abc  "
    ' Append: "def"
    ' Buffer Position: 3
    ' Buffer Length: 5
    '
    ' Buffer position + Append length > Buffer length -> Append chunk of blank space to buffer
    ' Buffer: "abc       "
    ' Buffer Length: 10
    '
    ' Put "def" into buffer at position 3 (0-based)
    ' Buffer: "abcdef    "
    '
    ' Approach based on cStringBuilder from vbAccelerator
    ' http://www.vbaccelerator.com/home/VB/Code/Techniques/RunTime_Debug_Tracing/VB6_Tracer_Utility_zip_cStringBuilder_cls.asp
    '
    ' and clsStringAppend from Philip Swannell
    ' https://github.com/VBA-tools/VBA-JSON/pull/82

    Dim json_AppendLength As Long
    Dim json_LengthPlusPosition As Long

    json_AppendLength = VBA.Len(json_Append)
    json_LengthPlusPosition = json_AppendLength + json_BufferPosition

    If json_LengthPlusPosition > json_BufferLength Then
        ' Appending would overflow buffer, add chunk
        ' (double buffer length or append length, whichever is bigger)
        Dim json_AddedLength As Long
        json_AddedLength = IIf(json_AppendLength > json_BufferLength, json_AppendLength, json_BufferLength)

        json_Buffer = json_Buffer & VBA.Space$(json_AddedLength)
        json_BufferLength = json_BufferLength + json_AddedLength
    End If

    ' Note: Namespacing with VBA.Mid$ doesn't work properly here, throwing compile error:
    ' Function call on left-hand side of assignment must return Variant or Object
    Mid$(json_Buffer, json_BufferPosition + 1, json_AppendLength) = CStr(json_Append)
    json_BufferPosition = json_BufferPosition + json_AppendLength
End Sub

Private Function json_BufferToString(ByRef json_Buffer As String, ByVal json_BufferPosition As Long) As String
    If json_BufferPosition > 0 Then
        json_BufferToString = VBA.Left$(json_Buffer, json_BufferPosition)
    End If
End Function

''
' VBA-UTC v1.0.6
' (c) Tim Hall - https://github.com/VBA-tools/VBA-UtcConverter
'
' UTC/ISO 8601 Converter for VBA
'
' Errors:
' 10011 - UTC parsing error
' 10012 - UTC conversion error
' 10013 - ISO 8601 parsing error
' 10014 - ISO 8601 conversion error
'
' @module UtcConverter
' @author [email protected]
' @license MIT (http://www.opensource.org/licenses/mit-license.php)
'' ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ '

' (Declarations moved to top)

' ============================================= '
' Public Methods
' ============================================= '

''
' Parse UTC date to local date
'
' @method ParseUtc
' @param {Date} UtcDate
' @return {Date} Local date
' @throws 10011 - UTC parsing error
''
Public Function ParseUtc(utc_UtcDate As Date) As Date
    On Error GoTo utc_ErrorHandling

#If Mac Then
    ParseUtc = utc_ConvertDate(utc_UtcDate)
#Else
    Dim utc_TimeZoneInfo As utc_TIME_ZONE_INFORMATION
    Dim utc_LocalDate As utc_SYSTEMTIME

    utc_GetTimeZoneInformation utc_TimeZoneInfo
    utc_SystemTimeToTzSpecificLocalTime utc_TimeZoneInfo, utc_DateToSystemTime(utc_UtcDate), utc_LocalDate

    ParseUtc = utc_SystemTimeToDate(utc_LocalDate)
#End If

    Exit Function

utc_ErrorHandling:
    Err.Raise 10011, "UtcConverter.ParseUtc", "UTC parsing error: " & Err.Number & " - " & Err.Description
End Function

''
' Convert local date to UTC date
'
' @method ConvertToUrc
' @param {Date} utc_LocalDate
' @return {Date} UTC date
' @throws 10012 - UTC conversion error
''
Public Function ConvertToUtc(utc_LocalDate As Date) As Date
    On Error GoTo utc_ErrorHandling

#If Mac Then
    ConvertToUtc = utc_ConvertDate(utc_LocalDate, utc_ConvertToUtc:=True)
#Else
    Dim utc_TimeZoneInfo As utc_TIME_ZONE_INFORMATION
    Dim utc_UtcDate As utc_SYSTEMTIME

    utc_GetTimeZoneInformation utc_TimeZoneInfo
    utc_TzSpecificLocalTimeToSystemTime utc_TimeZoneInfo, utc_DateToSystemTime(utc_LocalDate), utc_UtcDate

    ConvertToUtc = utc_SystemTimeToDate(utc_UtcDate)
#End If

    Exit Function

utc_ErrorHandling:
    Err.Raise 10012, "UtcConverter.ConvertToUtc", "UTC conversion error: " & Err.Number & " - " & Err.Description
End Function

''
' Parse ISO 8601 date string to local date
'
' @method ParseIso
' @param {Date} utc_IsoString
' @return {Date} Local date
' @throws 10013 - ISO 8601 parsing error
''
Public Function ParseIso(utc_IsoString As String) As Date
    On Error GoTo utc_ErrorHandling

    Dim utc_Parts() As String
    Dim utc_DateParts() As String
    Dim utc_TimeParts() As String
    Dim utc_OffsetIndex As Long
    Dim utc_HasOffset As Boolean
    Dim utc_NegativeOffset As Boolean
    Dim utc_OffsetParts() As String
    Dim utc_Offset As Date

    utc_Parts = VBA.Split(utc_IsoString, "T")
    utc_DateParts = VBA.Split(utc_Parts(0), "-")
    ParseIso = VBA.DateSerial(VBA.CInt(utc_DateParts(0)), VBA.CInt(utc_DateParts(1)), VBA.CInt(utc_DateParts(2)))

    If UBound(utc_Parts) > 0 Then
        If VBA.InStr(utc_Parts(1), "Z") Then
            utc_TimeParts = VBA.Split(VBA.Replace(utc_Parts(1), "Z", ""), ":")
        Else
            utc_OffsetIndex = VBA.InStr(1, utc_Parts(1), "+")
            If utc_OffsetIndex = 0 Then
                utc_NegativeOffset = True
                utc_OffsetIndex = VBA.InStr(1, utc_Parts(1), "-")
            End If

            If utc_OffsetIndex > 0 Then
                utc_HasOffset = True
                utc_TimeParts = VBA.Split(VBA.Left$(utc_Parts(1), utc_OffsetIndex - 1), ":")
                utc_OffsetParts = VBA.Split(VBA.Right$(utc_Parts(1), Len(utc_Parts(1)) - utc_OffsetIndex), ":")

                Select Case UBound(utc_OffsetParts)
                Case 0
                    utc_Offset = TimeSerial(VBA.CInt(utc_OffsetParts(0)), 0, 0)
                Case 1
                    utc_Offset = TimeSerial(VBA.CInt(utc_OffsetParts(0)), VBA.CInt(utc_OffsetParts(1)), 0)
                Case 2
                    ' VBA.Val does not use regional settings, use for seconds to avoid decimal/comma issues
                    utc_Offset = TimeSerial(VBA.CInt(utc_OffsetParts(0)), VBA.CInt(utc_OffsetParts(1)), Int(VBA.val(utc_OffsetParts(2))))
                End Select

                If utc_NegativeOffset Then: utc_Offset = -utc_Offset
            Else
                utc_TimeParts = VBA.Split(utc_Parts(1), ":")
            End If
        End If

        Select Case UBound(utc_TimeParts)
        Case 0
            ParseIso = ParseIso + VBA.TimeSerial(VBA.CInt(utc_TimeParts(0)), 0, 0)
        Case 1
            ParseIso = ParseIso + VBA.TimeSerial(VBA.CInt(utc_TimeParts(0)), VBA.CInt(utc_TimeParts(1)), 0)
        Case 2
            ' VBA.Val does not use regional settings, use for seconds to avoid decimal/comma issues
            ParseIso = ParseIso + VBA.TimeSerial(VBA.CInt(utc_TimeParts(0)), VBA.CInt(utc_TimeParts(1)), Int(VBA.val(utc_TimeParts(2))))
        End Select

        ParseIso = ParseUtc(ParseIso)

        If utc_HasOffset Then
            ParseIso = ParseIso - utc_Offset
        End If
    End If

    Exit Function

utc_ErrorHandling:
    Err.Raise 10013, "UtcConverter.ParseIso", "ISO 8601 parsing error for " & utc_IsoString & ": " & Err.Number & " - " & Err.Description
End Function

''
' Convert local date to ISO 8601 string
'
' @method ConvertToIso
' @param {Date} utc_LocalDate
' @return {Date} ISO 8601 string
' @throws 10014 - ISO 8601 conversion error
''
Public Function ConvertToIso(utc_LocalDate As Date) As String
    On Error GoTo utc_ErrorHandling

    ConvertToIso = VBA.Format$(ConvertToUtc(utc_LocalDate), "yyyy-mm-ddTHH:mm:ss.000Z")

    Exit Function

utc_ErrorHandling:
    Err.Raise 10014, "UtcConverter.ConvertToIso", "ISO 8601 conversion error: " & Err.Number & " - " & Err.Description
End Function

' ============================================= '
' Private Functions
' ============================================= '

#If Mac Then

Private Function utc_ConvertDate(utc_Value As Date, Optional utc_ConvertToUtc As Boolean = False) As Date
    Dim utc_ShellCommand As String
    Dim utc_Result As utc_ShellResult
    Dim utc_Parts() As String
    Dim utc_DateParts() As String
    Dim utc_TimeParts() As String

    If utc_ConvertToUtc Then
        utc_ShellCommand = "date -ur `date -jf '%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S' " & _
            "'" & VBA.Format$(utc_Value, "yyyy-mm-dd HH:mm:ss") & "' " & _
            " +'%s'` +'%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S'"
    Else
        utc_ShellCommand = "date -jf '%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S %z' " & _
            "'" & VBA.Format$(utc_Value, "yyyy-mm-dd HH:mm:ss") & " +0000' " & _
            "+'%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S'"
    End If

    utc_Result = utc_ExecuteInShell(utc_ShellCommand)

    If utc_Result.utc_Output = "" Then
        Err.Raise 10015, "UtcConverter.utc_ConvertDate", "'date' command failed"
    Else
        utc_Parts = Split(utc_Result.utc_Output, " ")
        utc_DateParts = Split(utc_Parts(0), "-")
        utc_TimeParts = Split(utc_Parts(1), ":")

        utc_ConvertDate = DateSerial(utc_DateParts(0), utc_DateParts(1), utc_DateParts(2)) + _
            TimeSerial(utc_TimeParts(0), utc_TimeParts(1), utc_TimeParts(2))
    End If
End Function

Private Function utc_ExecuteInShell(utc_ShellCommand As String) As utc_ShellResult
#If VBA7 Then
    Dim utc_File As LongPtr
    Dim utc_Read As LongPtr
#Else
    Dim utc_File As Long
    Dim utc_Read As Long
#End If

    Dim utc_Chunk As String

    On Error GoTo utc_ErrorHandling
    utc_File = utc_popen(utc_ShellCommand, "r")

    If utc_File = 0 Then: Exit Function

    Do While utc_feof(utc_File) = 0
        utc_Chunk = VBA.Space$(50)
        utc_Read = CLng(utc_fread(utc_Chunk, 1, Len(utc_Chunk) - 1, utc_File))
        If utc_Read > 0 Then
            utc_Chunk = VBA.Left$(utc_Chunk, CLng(utc_Read))
            utc_ExecuteInShell.utc_Output = utc_ExecuteInShell.utc_Output & utc_Chunk
        End If
    Loop

utc_ErrorHandling:
    utc_ExecuteInShell.utc_ExitCode = CLng(utc_pclose(utc_File))
End Function

#Else

Private Function utc_DateToSystemTime(utc_Value As Date) As utc_SYSTEMTIME
    utc_DateToSystemTime.utc_wYear = VBA.Year(utc_Value)
    utc_DateToSystemTime.utc_wMonth = VBA.Month(utc_Value)
    utc_DateToSystemTime.utc_wDay = VBA.Day(utc_Value)
    utc_DateToSystemTime.utc_wHour = VBA.Hour(utc_Value)
    utc_DateToSystemTime.utc_wMinute = VBA.Minute(utc_Value)
    utc_DateToSystemTime.utc_wSecond = VBA.Second(utc_Value)
    utc_DateToSystemTime.utc_wMilliseconds = 0
End Function

Private Function utc_SystemTimeToDate(utc_Value As utc_SYSTEMTIME) As Date
    utc_SystemTimeToDate = DateSerial(utc_Value.utc_wYear, utc_Value.utc_wMonth, utc_Value.utc_wDay) + _
        TimeSerial(utc_Value.utc_wHour, utc_Value.utc_wMinute, utc_Value.utc_wSecond)
End Function

#End If
Attribute VB_Name = "Module1"
Function toJSON(rangeToParse As Range, parseAsArrays As Boolean) As String
    Dim rowCounter As Integer
    Dim columnCounter As Integer
    Dim parsedData As String: parsedData = "["
    Dim temp As String

    If parseAsArrays Then ' Check to see if we need to make our JSON an array; if not, we'll make it an object
        For rowCounter = 1 To rangeToParse.Rows.Count ' Loop through each row
            temp = "" ' Reset temp's value

            For columnCounter = 1 To rangeToParse.Columns.Count ' Loop through each column
                temp = temp & """" & rangeToParse.Cells(rowCounter, columnCounter) & """" & ","
            Next

            temp = "[" & Left(temp, Len(temp) - 1) & "]," ' Remove extra comma from after last object
            parsedData = parsedData & temp ' Add temp to the data we've already parsed
        Next
    Else
        For rowCounter = 2 To rangeToParse.Rows.Count ' Loop through each row starting with the second row so we don't include the header
            temp = "" ' Reset temp's value

            For columnCounter = 1 To rangeToParse.Columns.Count ' Loop through each column
                temp = temp & """" & rangeToParse.Cells(1, columnCounter) & """" & ":" & """" & rangeToParse.Cells(rowCounter, columnCounter) & """" & ","
            Next

            temp = "{" & Left(temp, Len(temp) - 1) & "}," ' Remove extra comma from after last object
            parsedData = parsedData & temp ' Add temp to the data we've already parsed
        Next
    End If

    parsedData = Left(parsedData, Len(parsedData) - 1) & "]" ' Remove extra comma and add the closing bracket for the JSON array
    toJSON = parsedData ' Return the JSON data
End Function

Function getValuesRange(sheet As String) As Range
    ' Row variables
    Dim usedRows As Integer: usedRows = 0
    Dim rowCounter As Integer: rowCounter = 1
    Dim rowsToCount As Integer: rowsToCount = 1000
    ' Column variables
    Dim usedColumns As Integer: usedColumns = 0
    Dim columnCounter As Integer: columnCounter = 1
    Dim columnsToCount As Integer: columnsToCount = 50

    Do While rowCounter <= rowsToCount ' Loop through each row
        Do While columnCounter <= columnsToCount ' Loop through each column
            If Worksheets(sheet).Cells(rowCounter, columnCounter) <> "" Then ' Check to see if the cell has a value
                usedRows = rowCounter ' Since the current row has a cell with a value in it, set usedRows to the current row

                If columnCounter > usedColumns Then
                    usedColumns = columnCounter ' If the current column is greater than usedColumns, set usedColumns to the current column
                End If

                If usedRows = rowsToCount Then
                    rowsToCount = rowsToCount + 100 ' If the value of usedRows reaches the rowsToCount limit, then extend the rowsToCount limit by 100
                End If

                If usedColumns = columnsToCount Then
                    columnsToCount = columnsToCount + 50 ' If the value of usedColumns reaches the columnsToCount limit, then extend the columnsToCount limit by 100
                End If
            End If
            columnCounter = columnCounter + 1 ' Increment columnCounter
        Loop

        rowCounter = rowCounter + 1 ' Increment rowCounter
        columnCounter = 1 ' Reset the columnCounter to 1 so we're always checking the first column every time we loop
    Loop

    Set getValuesRange = Worksheets(sheet).Range("a1", Worksheets(sheet).Cells(usedRows, usedColumns).Address) ' Return the range of cells that have values
End Function

Sub runHomeCreditModel()
    
    Dim api As API_Client
    Set api = New API_Client
    Dim data As String
    
    ' Initialize API Client
    api.Initialize "<add-modzy-URL>", "<add-modzy-api-key>"
    
    ' Extract CSV file before sending to job
    data = toJSON(getValuesRange("Preprocessed Data"), False)
    
    ' Submit job
    api.call_api_home_credit_model data, "ML Predictions"
    
End Sub

In the RunModzyModel.bas module, make sure to replace <add-modzy-URL> with a valid Modzy URL (e.g., https://trial.app.modzy.com) and <add-modzy-api-key> with your valid Modzy API Key.

Lastly, insert a button the enables the runHomeCreditModel macro to run and return the predictions directly to the "ML Predictions" empty sheet.

642642

Figure 6. Insert Button Tab

196196

Figure 7. Example Button

442442

Figure 8. Assign Correct Macro to Button

Customize Your Integration

While this example uses a Home Credit Analysis model, you may have your own needs to modify the API_client.cls module that fits your model and data formatting.


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